Anthropogenic Vanadium emissions to air and ambient air concentrations in North-West Europe
1 Department of Climate, Air and Sustainability, TNO, 3584 CB Utrecht, The NETHERLANDS
2 IUTA e. V., Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology Unit, D-47229 Duisburg, GERMANY
An inventory of Vanadium emissions for North-West Europe for the year 2005 was made based on an identification of the major sources. The inventory covers Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Netherlands and the OSPAR region of the North Sea. Vanadium emission were calculated bottom-up using energy use activity data and collected fuel and sector-specific emissions factors, taking into account various emission control measures. The NW European emissions were dominated by combustion of heavy fuel oil and petroleum cokes. Total emissions for 2005 amounted to 1569 tons/yr. The major sources are sea going ships (39%), petroleum refineries (35%) and industry (19%). Emission is strongly concentrated at the densely populated cities with major sea ports. The location of sources at or near the major port cities was confirmed by observational data, as was the downward trend in emissions due to emission control, fuel switches in industry and fuel quality improvement. The results show the positive impact of lower sulphur fuels on other possible health relevant air pollutants such as particle bound Vanadium. The emission inventory can be expanded to the full European domain and can be used to for air quality modeling and particularly for the tracing of source contributions from certain types of fossil fuels (petroleum coke and residual fuel oil). Moreover, it will allow the monitoring of changes in fuel use over time.
Key words: Heavy metals / Vanadium / emission inventory / heavy fuel oil / shipping / petroleum cokes
© Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2013
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