Substance flow analysis for mercury emission in Poland
1 Faculty of Biology and Environmental Sciences, Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski University in Warsaw, Wojcickiego 1/3, 01-938 Warszawa, POLAND
2 NILU Polska Sp. z o.o. (daughter company of Norwegian Institute for Air Research), Ceglana 4, 40-514 Katowice, POLAND
Substance Flow Analysis (SFA) is an approach showing main sources of emission and flows of pollution to the environment, which allows to define possible environmental risk. Total identified mercury emission to air, soil and water in Poland for year 2010 from anthropogenic sources was estimated as 18.0 Mg. Annual Hg emission to air from by-product sources was equal 13.5 Mg, with the highest share of emission from brown coal-fired power plants. Mercury contained in combustion residues and removed from flue gases is transferred to waste waters, disposed to landfills and used to a concrete production with unknown amounts. Annual mercury emission to air from the use of mercury-containing products (0.5 Mg) was estimated by authors based on model for distribution and emissions for batteries, light sources, other electrical and electronic equipment and also for measuring and control equipment. Emission to air from dental practice (0.3 Mg) was estimated for combustion of wastes containing dental amalgam and from bodies cremation. SFA for the use of mercury-containing products and dental practice presents significant load of 10.4 Mg mercury contained in hazardous wastes produced annually. It covers wastes of used products, dental amalgam wastes directly from clinics as well as stream from incineration of infectious dental wastes. In the paper mercury discharges to water from large and medium industrial facilities (2.9 Mg) and municipal waste-water treatment plants in large agglomerations (0.4 Mg) are presented. Smaller loads are generates by leachate transfer from municipal landfills to WWTPs and further to agriculture and also by releases from dental amalgam in buried bodies. The paper indicates lack of information in SFA which should be regarded, mainly concerning mercury releases from municipal landfills to water and soil and emissions from municipal WWTPs to air.
Key words: mercury / emission / inventory / air / water / soil / substance flow analysis
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