Indirect determination of soil water content
University of Poitiers, CNRS, UMR 7285 IC2MP, ENSI Poitiers, 86073 Poitiers cedex 09, France
a Corresponding author: email@example.com
This manuscript reviews the recent developments in indirect methods used to measure soil watent content (SWC). It focuses on three types of methodological approaches: (i) high-frequency electromagnetic methodologies (dielectric methods and Ground Penetrating Radar), (ii) low-frequency electromagnetic methods (resistivity method and spectral induced polarization-SIP) and (iii) emerging methods (laboratory and ground-based nuclear magnetic resonance-NMR techniques and methods based on fiber optic temperature sensing systems). For each method the physical principles and the corresponding methodology are briefly described first, followed by the recent methodological advances. These recent advances address the following issues: (a) integration of different types of sensors to design new multi-functional devices, (b) miniaturization of low-cost and easily-installed electromagnetic sensors, (c) fusion and assimilation of data acquired from multiple modalities with different sampling rates and spatial resolutions, (d) physical understanding of spectra and distributed parameters measured by SIP and NMR methods, (e) improvement of geophysical inversion techniques combined with fast data acquisitions (4D monitoring of SWC).
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016
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