Risk assessment of children’s exposure to potentially harmful elements (PHE) in selected urban parks of the Silesian agglomeration
AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection, Mickiewicz av. 30, 30-052 Cracow, Poland
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The author determined the total contents of selected elements potentially hazardous for health (PHE): As, Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Sn in soils, sand of sandboxes and airborne dust collected in three urban parks of the Silesian agglomeration. The upper limit of Cd content (a Polish regulation) was exceeded in the soils of two largest and most frequented parks, the Silesian Park and the Kościuszko Park. The mean Cd contents in soils are 9 and 7 mg/kg, respectively. The metal contents of the sand from sandboxes are generally much lower than those of the soils: Cu 28 times on average, As 13 times, and Cd and Ni around 4 times, while the Co and Sn contents of sand are comparable with those of soils. Airborne dusts are a significant source of metals: they contain Cd (1–20 mg/kg), Co (2–17 mg/kg) and Cu (6–143 mg/kg). The quotients of the health risk indicate a potential health risk caused by As, Cd and Ni for children, particularly those with a low (below 15 kg) body weight. The risk level of 1–4% PTMDI (Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake) origins from an accidental swallowing of soil.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016
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