E3S Web Conf.
Volume 40, 2018River Flow 2018 - Ninth International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics
|Number of page(s)||8|
|Section||Fluid mechanics and sediment processes|
|Published online||05 September 2018|
Mixing processes at an ice-covered river confluence
Department of Geography, Planning and Envirronment, Concordia University, 1455 De Maisonneuve Blvd W., Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8, Canada
2 Département de biologie, chimie et géographie, Université du Québec à Rimouski, 300 allée des Ursulines, Rimouski, Quebec, G5L 3A1, Canada
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
River confluences are characterized by a complex mixing zone with three-dimensional turbulent structures, which can be affected by the presence of an ice cover during the winter. The objective of this study is to characterize the flow structure in the mixing zone at a medium-size (~ 40 m) river confluence with and without an ice cover. Detailed velocity profiles were collected under the ice along the mixing plane with an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. For the ice-free conditions, drone imagery was used to characterize the mixing layer structures for various flow stages. Results indicate that during the ice-free conditions, very large Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) coherent structures are visible due to turbidity differences, and occupy up to 50% of the width of the parent channel. During winter, the ice cover affects velocity profiles by moving the highest velocities towards the center of the profiles. Large turbulent structures are visible in both the streamwise and lateral velocity components. The strong correlation between these velocity components indicates that KH vortices are the dominating coherent structures in the mixing zone. A spatio-temporal conceptual model is presented to illustrate the main differences on the three-dimensional flow structure at the river confluence with and without the ice cover.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2018
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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