E3S Web Conf.
Volume 146, 2020The 2019 International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts (SCA 2019)
|Number of page(s)||12|
|Section||Improved SCAL Techniques and Interpretation|
|Published online||05 February 2020|
Permeability alteration by salt precipitation: numerical and experimental investigation using X-Ray Radiography
1 IFP Energies Nouvelles, Rueil-Malmaison France
2 Equinor, Trondheim, Norway
The injection of a gas phase through a water saturated porous medium can reduce the water saturation not only by displacement mechanisms but also by evaporation mechanisms. In the presence of brine, this process can induce salt crystallization and precipitation within the porous medium with a risk of permeability alteration. In the field of gas production and storage, the occurrence of such a phenomenon can have detrimental consequence on the well productivity or injectivity. In this work, we investigated experimentally and numerically the effect of dry gas injection on salt precipitation and permeability impairment. State of the art equipment designed for high throughput coreflood experimentation was used to capture the dynamic of salt migration using X-Ray radiography. A set of experiments have been conducted on a sample of Bentheimer sandstone (10mm in diameter and 20 mm in length) as well as a two layers composite sample with a significant permeability contrast. Experiments were conducted using Nitrogen and KBr brine with different boundary conditions (i.e. with and without capillary contact). Results showed that salt precipitation results from the interplay of different parameters, namely pressure gradient, brine salinity, capillary forces and vapor partial pressure. Experimental observations indicate that in the case of dry gas injection, salt systematically precipitates but permeability alteration is observed only if a capillary contact is maintained with the brine. We built a 2D flow model integrating two-phase Darcy flow, capillary forces, salt effect on vapor partial pressure, dissolved salt transport, as well as the different PVT equilibria needed to describe properly the systems. Once calibrated, the model showed good predictability of lab scale experiment and thus can be used for parametrical study and upscaled to the well bore scale.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2020
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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