E3S Web Conf.
Volume 331, 2021International Conference on Disaster Mitigation and Management (ICDMM 2021)
|Number of page(s)||7|
|Section||Tsunami and Seismic Engineering|
|Published online||13 December 2021|
Hard and soft measures for earthquake and tsunami disaster mitigation
Professor, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
A destructive earthquake struck the Kobe region on January 17, 1995, and a massive earthquake and tsunami struck eastern Japan on March 11, 2011. We present an overview of the casualty aspects of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake compared with those of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. In the Tohoku disaster, some water gates and seawalls saved some villages from the tsunami effects, though some did not. Based on these examples, we discuss the efficiency of soft and hard measures and consider their respective merits and demerits. The main causes of death in the Kobe and Tohoku EQs were, respectively, collapsing buildings and drowning in the tsunami. Although the time to death was very short in both cases, people often have more time to evacuate in the case of an interplate earthquake leading to a tsunami. Basic countermeasures against tsunamis include such hard measures as water gates, seawalls, and embankments. Soft measures need to be implemented in areas where hard measures are insufficient
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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