E3S Web Conf.
Volume 367, 2023The 2022 International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts (SCA 2022)
|Number of page(s)||11|
|Published online||31 January 2023|
Water-Gas Imbibition Relative Permeability: Literature Review, Direct versus Indirect Methods and Experimental Recommendations
TOTALENERGIES CSTJF, Pau, France
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
When an active aquifer encroaches into a gas bearing reservoir or when an oil rim sweeps gas during late depletion of the gas cap, gas displacement by liquid is important for estimating the gas recovery. In the water displacing gas condition, the viscosity ratio is extremely favorable, resulting in a sharp waterfront in the reservoir matrix: it results that changing the relative permeability Kr shape has negligible effect, while endpoints water relative permeability Krw Max and residual gas saturation Sgr are much more important to understand gas flow performance for estimation of gas recovery with active aquifer or productivity decline after water breakthrough. Three main methods are used to determine water/gas relative permeability curves: imbibition unsteady-state, imbibition steady-state or indirect approaches such as co-current spontaneous imbibition if transient data are available. One of the other popular indirect methods is called Brooks-Corey approach: by measuring the drainage Pc curve using centrifuge or porous plate methods, it is possible to calculate a pore size distribution index c. This coefficient is used in a Brooks-Corey model to determine the drainage Kr curve. It is also required to measure and determine the relationship between the residual gas saturation Sgr and the initial gas saturation Sgi relationship. Finally, it is accepted that there is no hysteresis on the water relative permeability Krw curve, as water is always the wetting phase in the gas/water couple. As non-wetting phase, gas exhibits strong hysteresis between drainage and imbibition curves: it is therefore necessary to apply a correction on the drainage Krg curve to build the imbibition one using correcting models. The aim of this paper is to compare gas/water relative permeability of clastic rocks using direct waterflooding information and indirect approach using Brooks-Corey model. It is shown that using the indirect approach leads to results like those experimentally obtained. Also, additional numerical simulations are proposed to discuss the relevance of measuring the entire water-gas imbibition relative permeability curve using the steady-state approach.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2023
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