E3S Web Conf.
Volume 50, 2018XII Congreso Internacional Terroir
|Number of page(s)||8|
|Section||Componentes de los Terroir|
|Published online||22 August 2018|
Climate zoning of the Burgundy winegrowing region
CRC – UMR Biogeosciences, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté / CNRS,
6 Bd Gabriel,
2 Université de Bourgogne Franche-Comté, THEMA-CNRS, France
3 Institut Universitaire de la Vigne et du Vin, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, rue Claude Ladrey, 21000 Dijon, France
As one of the most emblematic wine regions of cool climate terroir viticulture, Burgundy is endowed with a set of very specific natural features suitable to the production of high quality wines, where climate is arguably one of the main factors to profoundly influence vine physiology/phenology and grape composition. These environmental nuances have led to a wide variety of styles in Pinot noir and Chardonnay wines that have been largely acknowledged and appreciated by the international market and vitivinicultural industry. However, individual grape varieties optimum quality is known to be closely related to well-defined climate and geographical ranges. Climate change and global warming latest trends make them more susceptible to undergo modifications in terms of berry ripening processes and advancements in harvest dates due to short-term and long-term spatiotemporal fluctuations in climate variability. The impact of air temperature on grapevine development and harvest outcomes has been widely documented by the scientific community, its influence translating as quality and quantity fluctuations in space (“terroir” effect) and time (“vintage” effect). Through this study we aim to assess the extent of these threats by means of modelling and spatializing the regional climate variations based on 5 agricultural climatic indices: the number of days with temperatures equal or greater than 35°C (heat stress), the number of days indicating a frost risk (equal or greater than -1°C), the mid-flowering, the mid-véraison and the theoretical grape maturity (200g/l of sugar) occurrence dates. Mid-flowering, mid-véraison as well as the theoretical grape maturity were estimated through the summation of temperatures over 10°C (starting 1st of March) based on the GFV (Grapevine Flowering Véraison) linear phenological model and were calculated for the 2 prime varieties cultivated in Burgundy (Chardonnay and Pinot noir). Daily minimum and maximum temperatures issued from a network of 64 weather stations scattered throughout the main 9 wine production subregions of Burgundy were spatially interpolated on a grid with a 75m resolution over a 41751ha area (74556 pixels). Spatial interpolations were performed at a daily time step integrating various topographical features through a regression-kriging model for the 2011-2015 period. Daily grid minimum and maximum temperatures were further used to calculate the 5 agroclimatic indices for each of the years of the study period. The entirety of the 74556 pixels were later classified at regular intervals in 6 groups which were assigned to each of the three phenological stages: “very early”, “early”, “intermediate”, “late”, “very late” and “variable”. The number of heat stress days as well as those presenting a frost risk were equally classified based on their occurrence as “very rare”, “rare”, “intermediate”, “frequent” and “very frequent”. The annual spatial structure of the individual classes was very similar due to temperature distribution being strongly governed by terrain features. We were able to identify observable differences between the north and the south subregions of Burgundy with a potential variation ranging from 7 to 15 days in terms of phenological and theoretical maturity occurrence dates. Côte de Nuits and Côte de Beaune vineyards indicate similar climate characteristics with early phenological timing (97% and 82% respectively of the area classified as “early”) and little frost and heat risks. The number of days with a frost risk is a lot more elevated in the Côte Châtillonnaise and the Chablis subregions, while the number of heat stress days was larger in the subregions located in the south of Burgundy.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2018
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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