E3S Web Conf.
Volume 89, 2019The 2018 International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts (SCA 2018)
|Number of page(s)||9|
|Section||Improved SCAL techniques and Interpretation|
|Published online||29 March 2019|
Impact of Brine Composition and Concentration on Capillary Pressure and Residual Oil Saturation in Limestone Core Samples
Department of Petroleum Engineering, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, SAN Campus, Abu Dhabi
2 Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC)
* corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Low salinity water flooding (LSF) is a relatively simple and cheap EOR technique in which the salinit y of the injected water is optimized (by desalination and/or modification) to improve oil recovery over conventional waterflooding. Extensive laboratory experiments investigating the effect of LSF are available in the literature. Sulfate-rich as well as diluted brines have shown promising potential to increase oil production in limestone core samples. To quantify the low salinity effect, spontaneous imbibition and/or tertiary waterflooding experiments have been reported. For the first time in literature, this paper presents a comprehensive study of the centrifuge technique to investigate low salinity effect in carbonate samples. The study is divided into three parts. At first, a comprehensive screening was performed on the impact of different connate water and imbibition brine compositions/combinations on the spontaneous imbibition behavior. Second, the subsequent forced imbibition of the samples using the centrifuge method to investigate the impact of brine compositions on residual saturations and capillary pressure. Finally, three unsteady-state (USS) core floodings were conducted in order to examine the potential of the different brines to increase oil recovery in secondary mode (brine injection at connate water saturation) and tertiary mode (exchange of injection brine at mature recovery stage). The experiments were performed using Indiana limestone outcrops. The main conclusions of the study are spontaneous imbibition experiments only showed oil recovery in case the salinity of the imbibing water (IW) is lower than the salinity of the connate water (CW). No oil production was observed when the imbibing water had a higher salinity than the connate water or the salinity of the connate water and imbibing brine were identical. Moreover, the spontaneous imbibition experiments indicated that diluting the salinity of the imbibing water has a larger potential to spontaneously recover oil than the introduction of sulfate-rich sea water. The centrifuge experiments confirmed a connection between the overall salinity and oil recovery. As the salinity of the imbibing brines decreases, the capillary imbibition pressure curves showed an increasing water-wetting tendency and simultaneous reduction of the remaining oil saturation. The lowest remaining oil saturation was obtained for diluted sea water as CW and IW. The core flooding experiments reflected the results of the spontaneous imbibition and centrifuge experiments. Injecting brine at a rate of 0.05 cc/min, sea water and especially diluted sea water resulted in a significant higher oil recovery compared to formation brine. Moreover, when comparing secondary mode experiments, the remaining oil saturation after flooding by diluted sea water, sea water and formation water was 30.6 %, 35.5 % and 37.4 %, respectively. In tertiary injection mode, sea water did not lead to extra oil recovery while diluted sea water led to an additional oil recovery of 5.6 % in one out of two tertiary injection applications.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2019
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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