E3S Web Conf.
Volume 233, 20212020 2nd International Academic Exchange Conference on Science and Technology Innovation (IAECST 2020)
|Number of page(s)||5|
|Section||BFS2020-Biotechnology and Food Science|
|Published online||27 January 2021|
Biostatistics in Clinical Decision Making What can We Get from a 2×2 Contingency Table
Columbian College of Arts and Science, the George Washington University, Washington D.C., 20052, United States
* Corresponding author: *email@example.com
Biostatistics is an essential part when making clinical decisions. Applications of 2×2 contingency tables playing a key role in conducting analysis involving binary variables. When it comes to analysis based on 2×2 contingency tables, most people are familiar with the concept of sensitivity and specificity for evaluating a new test, but predictive values and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves would also provide information. Besides, Odds Ratio (OR), Risk Ratio (RR), and Chi-square test are measures based on 2×2 tables and commonly applied in retrospective and prospective studies. This article will first review the two kinds of application of 2×2 contingency tables, evaluating a new test compared with a reference standard, and exploring the relationship of exposures and outcomes in retrospective or prospective studies. Two clinical examples are presented to demonstrate these basic biostatistical concepts: diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (64-MDCT) to identify periampullary duodenal diverticula, and a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to examine the effectiveness of Dexmedetomidine for prevention of delirium in elderly patients after non-cardiac surgery. Correctly understanding these concepts will assist clinicians and medical researchers to analyze the data and interpret the results, and therefore make accurate decisions in clinical practice.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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