E3S Web Conf.
Volume 246, 2021Cold Climate HVAC & Energy 2021
|Number of page(s)||7|
|Section||System Design and Sizing|
|Published online||29 March 2021|
DHW tank sizing considering dynamic energy prices
1 Department of Energy and Process Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Kolbjørn Hejes vei 1 B, Trondheim 7491, Norway
2 SINTEF, SINTEF Community, P.O. Box 124 Blindern, 0314 Oslo, Norway
Due to the rapid development of the building stock in Norway, the energy use in this segment is drastically increasing. Therefore, improving the energy performance of buildings becoming an urgent problem. Among technical systems in buildings, domestic hot water (DHW) systems have still significant untapped potential for energy saving. Storage tanks enable us to change DHW demand in buildings in a more energy-efficient and cost-effective way. However, to achieve this effect, the proper sizing and operation of the storage tanks are required. The aim of this study was to define a method for the DHW tank size optimization considering dynamic electricity prices and to assess how different electricity pricing methods would influence the DHW tank size. A dynamic discretized model of the DHW tank was used as a DHW tank model. Dynamic optimization was implemented as the optimization method to find the optimal tank charging rate based on the different pricing methods. Two pricing methods were considered in this study: 1) the current method with the fixed grid fee and 2) the power extraction method with the pricing of the maximum power extraction. The results showed that the electricity pricing pattern had significant impact on the DHW charging heating rate. In the case of the extraction fee pricing method, the charging rate was more stable over the day than in the case of the fixed grid fee. This stable charging rate gave stable DHW tank temperature over the day and the highest decrease in the total cost. A general conclusion was that the extraction grid fee pricing method would promote for stable charging over the day.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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