E3S Web Conf.
Volume 146, 2020The 2019 International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts (SCA 2019)
|Number of page(s)||5|
|Section||Improved SCAL Techniques and Interpretation|
|Published online||05 February 2020|
Effects of gas pressurization on the interpretation of NMR hydrocarbon measurements in organic rich shales
Mewbourne School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, University of Oklahoma, USA
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
The estimation of total hydrocarbons (HCs) in place is one of the most important economic challenges in unconventional resource plays. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has proven to be a valuable tool in directly quantifying both hydrocarbons and brines in the laboratory and the field. Some major applications of NMR interpretation include pore body size distributions, wettability, fluid types, and fluid properties. However, for tight formations, the effects of the factors on NMR relaxation data are intertwined. One purpose of this study is to review the interpretation of NMR response of HCs in a tight rock matrix through illustrated examples.
When comparing NMR data between downhole wireline and laboratory measurement, three important elements need to be considered: 1) temperature differences, 2) system response differences, and 3) pressure (mainly due to the lost gasses.) The effect of temperature on HCs would be presented with experimental results for bulk fluids. Whereas, the effect of pressure is investigated by injecting gas back into rock matrix saturated with original fluids. The experiments were performed within an NMR transparent Daedalus ZrO2 pressure cell, which operates at pressures up to 10,000 psi.
The results show that, at ambient temperature and pressure, NMR responds to a fraction of HCs, which is volatile enough to be observed as an NMR relaxation sequence. The invisible fraction of HCs to NMR sequence at ambient condition can be up to 20% of the total extractable HCs. Molecular relaxation is impacted by fluid viscosity, pore size, and surface affinity. In other words, the fluid with higher viscosity (either due to temperature or gas loss), presenting in smaller pore, or highly affected by the pore surface, will relax faster, and would be partially invisible to NMR, especially in the field. This is critical to the interpretation of NMR response for liquid rich source rocks, in which all of the above molecular relaxing restrictions can be found. Thus, engineers can underestimate movable HCs by using routine core analysis data.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2020
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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