E3S Web Conf.
Volume 205, 20202nd International Conference on Energy Geotechnics (ICEGT 2020)
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Section||Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Properties of Geomaterials|
|Published online||18 November 2020|
Hydration behavior by X-ray diffraction profile fitting of smectite-bearing minerals
Shell International Exploration and Production Inc., Shell Technology Center Houston, 3333 Highway 6 South, Houston, Texas, 77082, USA
* Corresponding author: Ruarri.Day-Stirrat@Shell.com
Clay mineral hydration and dehydration processes are reversible at temperatures <100 °C and strongly affect wellbore stability, fines migration, permeability, and dispersion of pore pressure. The hydration behavior of smectite-rich material as a function of relative humidity (activity of water, aw, controlled by salinity) and temperature was studied using in situ X-ray diffraction on a material retrieved from coring in the Gulf of Mexico. X-ray diffraction profile fitting was used to explore the competition for water between hydratable phases across a range of relative humidity, 2 % to 90 %, and temperature, 25°C to 95°C, conditions. X-ray diffraction profile fitting employed a modified multi-specimen approach in which proportions of minerals were modelled using Ca-exchanged preparations in air-dried and ethylene glycol solvated states. Across the range of hydration states, the mineral proportions and crystallographic parameters remained constant from the multi-specimen approach and only the number of water layers in hydratable phases varied. Quantitative clay mineralogy showed a natural material with a discrete smectite component and a mixed-layered illite-smectite, both capable of hydration/dehydration. Results of this study showed the discrete smectite component and the mixed-layered illite-smectite hydrated at different rates with discrete smectite up-taking more water at lower relative humidity than the mixed-layered illite-smectite. Over geological time this study highlights the non-static nature of smectite hydration with implications of long-term creep and permeability behavior.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2020
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.
Initial download of the metrics may take a while.