E3S Web Conf.
Volume 246, 2021Cold Climate HVAC & Energy 2021
|Number of page(s)||7|
|Section||System Design and Sizing|
|Published online||29 March 2021|
Impact of internal heat gain profiles on the design cooling capacity of landscaped offices
1 Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Tallinn University of Technology, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
2 Smart City Center of Excellence, Tallinn University of Technology, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
3 Department of Civil Engineering, Aalto University, Aalto, Finland
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Using passive methods in façade design for controlling heating and cooling needs is an important prerequisite for constructing cost-effective nearly zero-energy buildings. Optimal control of solar heat gains reduces the cooling demand and the size of the active cooling systems. However, applying such methods increases the impact of internal heat gains on the heat balance of the buildings, and accordingly also the dimensions of cooling systems. Therefore, a good model of internal heat gains is needed for a reliable and optimal sizing of the cooling sources. This paper aims to bring understanding to developing internal heat gains models for sizing the cooling systems. For this purpose, several weekly internal heat gain profiles were selected from a large set of tenant-based electricity use measured in 4 office buildings in Tallinn. The selection was based on maximum daily or weekly peak loads of an office space per floor area. The selected profiles and the schedule of EN 16798-1 were used to dimension ideal coolers in the zones of a generic floor model with landscaped offices developed in IDA-ICE 4.8. The model had variable window sizes and thermal mass of the building materials. Finally, the internal heat gains models resulting in the largest cooling capacity were identified. We found that utilizing thermal mass can reduce the cooling system size by up to 7% on average and the models with big windows and light structure need the largest cooling systems. The cooling loads obtained with the profile of EN 16798-1 did not significantly differ from the average of other profiles’ results. This paper focused mainly on the zonal dimensioning of cooling systems, therefore a more in-depth analysis of the different occupancy patterns as well as developing models for dimensioning the cooling system at the building level, is needed.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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